About tanty

I'm a computing engineer from León. I've always loved free software so I joined Igalia in June 2003 and nowadays is in Coruña where I live and work. Usually, I'm busy with Debian GNU/Linux administration, Fisterra and Gnome programming and some more free software related projects.

DIY Time Line cards game

In 2016, one of my sisters proposed to craft a gift for our parents coinciding with their 50th wedding anniversary that would work as a photo album, but more fun. She proposed that we would make our own game with family pictures following the same idea than Timeline.

Timeline General Interest Tin Box

During those years, Timeline was a popular cards game with a very simple mechanic. Each card pictures an event happening in a very specific moment in time. In one side, the card only states the name of the event while in the other side of the card it reveals the year that event happened and, sometimes, further details about the event.

The game consists in placing those cards in a time line from the further past to the present. Hence, its name. Additionally, the game was visually beautiful and, at the time, was done with quality materials in a nice embossed tin box.

Opened Timeline tin box

We decided to follow the same style but, since we wanted it to work as a photo album, the cards would be A5 instead of the tiny size of the original game. My sisters did the heavy work of finding the bulk of the pictures while I created the artistic material and selected the best pictures from the very big selection I received. In the end, we expanded from 1942 to 2016, for more than 120 cards.

As a FLOSS lover, in my creation process I used GIMP, Inkscape, Scribus and Krita and placed the basic templates into a repository to allow its usage by other people.

I used Inkscape to create the banners at the bottom of the pictures, GIMP was used for the modification of the source pictures so they will nicely sit on the cards, and Scribus was used to generate the PDFs to be sent for printing.

Ideally, the cards would be in portrait orientation …

“Los padrinos bailando” – Front
“Los padrinos bailando” – Back

… but, unavoidably, some needed to be in landscape.

“Me quedo” – Front
“Me quedo” – Back

We would also need a place in which to store the cards. An embossed tin box would have been great but way too expensive to the very limited amount we wanted to order. In the end, we decided to order an A5 cookies box from a provider which would be able to print on the lid.

I took heavy inspiration from the original designs of the existing game to make a custom cover with Inkscape and converted the resulting PNG with Krita to a TIFF using the desired CMYK color profile.

Custom “50th anniversary edition” Time Line tin box

The final result was quite nice.

Feel free to use the templates from the public repository. Contributions are also welcomed!

Basic LibreOffice invoice in Finland

WARNING

I have no responsibility if this guide and the linked examples are bogus and cause you any harm. The purpose of this post is solely as a personal note for myself. Follow and use it at your own risk.


Through this post we’ll see how to create an invoice with LibreOffice which would include the Finnish Reference Number (Viitenumero) or the RF Creditor Reference generated from that Finnish Reference Number and the Finnish Bank Bar Code (Pankkiviivakoodi).


The Finnish Reference Number

The Finnish Reference Number (viitenumero) identifies a specific bank transfer. In practice, it is used in invoices sent to a customer by a company or similar entity.

When we create an invoice in Finland, we want to include such number so its payment is following a standard set by the Finnish banks. For example, some banks may charge a commission if, when setting a payment, this number is not included.

The generation of this number follows a simple algorithm and I’ve compiled several implementations in different programming languages. Since we want to use it in LibreOffice Calc, the most suitable way would be through a (Basic) macro. It’s usage is as follows:

=LASKEVIITE(number)

Which number to pass you say? Well, it is pretty much whatever you want to pass (check the algorithm for the restrictions) but I basically pass the incremental invoice number. In my case, I just number my invoices like YYYY### meaning the 4 digits of the current year plus 3 digits for the incremental number of that invoice along the year (not in my wildest dreams I would generate more than 999 invoices in a single year). For example 2021023 would indicated the 23rd invoice generated in 2021. The result in the cell will show 202 10236, which is the provided number plus a check digit calculated by the algorithm and returned in a proper formatting (groups of 5 numbers).

The RF Creditor Reference

The RF Creditor Reference is an international business standard for an number preceded by the “RF” letters which serves a similar purpose than the Finnish Reference Number: identifying a specific payment.

The generation of this number also follows a simple algorithm and it was first implemented within the SEPA rulebook 3.2. Since having both numbers in the same invoice would be redundant and the RF Creditor Reference is international, we could just use this number and it should be accepted by the Finnish banks and some other banks, particularly some of those accepting SEPA transfers.

If we use the Finnish Reference Number, the calculation of the RF Creditor Reference check digits is pretty simple. We can just use the following formula in a cell:

=TEXT(98-MOD(SUBSTITUTE(LASKEVIITE(number)," ","")*1000000+271500,97),"00")

Following the example above, for the generated Finnish Reference Number 202 10236, the result in the cell will show 42. Then, we only have to concatenate everything together to get the full RF Creditor Reference: RF42 2021 0236.

Bar codes

Finnish banks have jointly developed the (Finnish) Bank Bar Code (Pankkiviivakoodi) in order to accelerate payments and to prevent erroneous data from being keyed in. The Bank Bar Code is a Code 128 bar code explicitly developed to be used with reference numbers in invoicing.

Hence, we want to add support to our Calc spreadsheet for generating bar codes. Fortunately, some Jiří Gabriel created a sophisticated (basic) macro for generating a whole set of 1D and 2D bar codes. This macro is able to generate the bar codes as graphical objects or as text which will be shown as the proper bar code when the companion BarsAndSpaces.ttf font is applied to the text. In my examples, I use the latter but you may prefer the former since that would allow you not to have that font installed.

This formula will show as cell result a Code 128 bar code containing the passed number if we apply the BarsAndSpaces.ttf font to its content:

=ENCODEBARCODE(CELL("SHEET"),CELL("ADDRESS"),number,0,0)

The Finnish Bank Bar Code

The Bank Bar Code is a form of presenting payment transaction data, approved by Finance
Finland (FFI). As commented above, it was jointly developed by Finnish banks and needs a reference number.

The Bank Bar Code has 2 versions currently in active use: version 4 uses the Finnish Reference Number while version 5 uses the RF Creditor Reference. Below, you can see how the 54 length structure of this bar code is divided depending on the version:

DataLengthValue
Version14
The numeric part of the payee’s bank
account number (IBAN)
16N
Euros6N
Cents2N
Reserve3000
Finnish Reference Number20N
Due Date6YYMMDD
(Finnish) Bank Bar Code v.4
DataLengthValue
Version15
The numeric part of the payee’s bank
account number (IBAN)
16N
Euros6N
Cents2N
The numeric part of the RF
Creditor Reference
23N
Due Date6YYMMDD
(Finnish) Bank Bar Code v.5

As you see, the algorithm is simple enough that can be easily implemented in a spreadsheet.

The full documentation for the Bank Bar Code is provided by Finance Finland.

Invoice examples

After all the blabbering above we get to the part that is, probably, the most interesting for you: the ODS examples.

I hope it helps you! 😀️

Appendix: QR Codes

Finance Finland also provides Guidelines for the use of QR code in credit transfer forms. Additionally, our bar codes macro also supports QR code generation. In other words, it would be possible to create an invoice with LibreOffice Calc featuring this QR code (QR-koodi).

However, I’ll leave this for another day … 😉️

Replaying 3D traces with piglit


If you don’t know what is traces based rendering regression testing, read the appendix before continuing.


The Mesa community has witnessed an explosion of the Continuous Integration interest in the last two years.

In addition to checking the proper building of the project, integrating the testing of its functional correctness has become a priority. The user space graphics drivers exhibit a wide variety of types of tests and test suites. One kind of those tests are the traces based rendering regression testing.

The public effort to add this kind of tests into Mesa’s CI started with this mail from Alexandros Frantzis.

At some point, we had support for replaying OpenGL, Vulkan and D3D11 traces using apitrace, RenderDoc and GFXReconstruct with the in-tree tool tracie. However, it was a very custom solution made to the needs of Mesa so I proposed to move this codebase and integrate it into the piglit test suite. It was a natural step forward.

This is how replayer was born into piglit.

replayer

The first step to test a trace is, actually, obtaining a trace. I won’t go into the details about how to create one from scratch. The process is well documented on each of the tools listed above. However, the Mesa community has been collecting publicly distributable traces for a while and placing them in traces-db whose CI is copying them to Freedesktop.org’s MinIO instance.

To make things simple, once we have built and installed piglit, if we would like to test an apitrace created OpenGL trace, we can download from there with:

$ replayer.py download \
 	 --download-url https://minio-packet.freedesktop.org/mesa-tracie-public/ \
 	 --db-path ./traces-db \
 	 --force-download \
 	 glxgears/glxgears-2.trace

The parameters are self explanatory. The downloaded trace will now exist at ./traces-db/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace.

The next step will be to dump an image from the trace. Since it is a .trace file we will need to have apitrace installed in the system. If we do not specify the call(s) from which to dump the image(s), we will just get the last frame of the trace:

$ replayer.py dump ./traces-db/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace

The dumped PNG image will be at ./results/glxgears-2.trace-0000001413.png. Notice, the number suffix is the snapshot id from the trace.

Dumping from a trace may result in a range of different possible images. One example is when the trace makes use of uninitialized values, leading to undefined behaviors.

However, since the original aim was performing pre-merge rendering regression testing in Mesa’s CI, the idea is that replaying any of the provided traces would be quick and the dumped image will be consistent. In other words, if we would dump several times the same frame of a trace with the same GFX stack, the image will always be the same.

With this precondition, we can test whether 2 different images are the same just by doing a hash of its content. replayer can obtain the hash for the generated dumped image:

$ replayer.py checksum ./results/glxgears-2.trace-0000001413.png 
f8eba0fec6e3e0af9cb09844bc73bdc8

Now, if we would build a different commit of Mesa, we could check the generated image at this new point against the previously generated reference image. If everything goes well, we will see something like:

$ replayer.py compare trace \
 	 --download-url https://minio-packet.freedesktop.org/mesa-tracie-public/ \
 	 --device-name gl-vmware-llvmpipe \
 	 --db-path ./traces-db \
 	 --keep-image \
 	 glxgears/glxgears-2.trace f8eba0fec6e3e0af9cb09844bc73bdc8
[dump_trace_images] Info: Dumping trace ./traces-db/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace...
[dump_trace_images] Running: apitrace dump --calls=frame ./traces-db/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace
// process.name = "/usr/bin/glxgears"
1384 glXSwapBuffers(dpy = 0x56060e921f80, drawable = 31457282)

1413 glXSwapBuffers(dpy = 0x56060e921f80, drawable = 31457282)

error: drawable failed to resize: expected 1515x843, got 300x300
[dump_trace_images] Running: eglretrace --headless --snapshot=1413 --snapshot-prefix=./results/trace/gl-vmware-llvmpipe/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace- ./blog-traces-db/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace
Wrote ./results/trace/gl-vmware-llvmpipe/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace-0000001413.png

OK
[check_image]
    actual: f8eba0fec6e3e0af9cb09844bc73bdc8
  expected: f8eba0fec6e3e0af9cb09844bc73bdc8
[check_image] Images match for:
  glxgears/glxgears-2.trace

PIGLIT: {"images": [{"image_desc": "glxgears/glxgears-2.trace", "image_ref": "f8eba0fec6e3e0af9cb09844bc73bdc8.png", "image_render": "./results/trace/gl-vmware-llvmpipe/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace-0000001413-f8eba0fec6e3e0af9cb09844bc73bdc8.png"}], "result": "pass"}

replayer‘s compare subcommand is the one spitting a piglit formatted test expectations output.

Putting everything together

We can make the whole process way simpler by passing the replayer a YAML tests list file. For example:

$ cat testing-traces.yml
traces-db:
  download-url: https://minio-packet.freedesktop.org/mesa-tracie-public/

traces:
  - path: gputest/triangle.trace
    expectations:
      - device: gl-vmware-llvmpipe
        checksum: c8848dec77ee0c55292417f54c0a1a49
  - path: glxgears/glxgears-2.trace
    expectations:
      - device: gl-vmware-llvmpipe
        checksum: f53ac20e17da91c0359c31f2fa3f401e
$ replayer.py compare yaml \
 	 --device-name gl-vmware-llvmpipe \
 	 --yaml-file testing-traces.yml 
[check_image] Downloading file gputest/triangle.trace took 5s.
[dump_trace_images] Info: Dumping trace ./replayer-db/gputest/triangle.trace...
[dump_trace_images] Running: apitrace dump --calls=frame ./replayer-db/gputest/triangle.trace
// process.name = "/home/anholt/GpuTest_Linux_x64_0.7.0/GpuTest"
397 glXSwapBuffers(dpy = 0x7f0ad0005a90, drawable = 56623106)

510 glXSwapBuffers(dpy = 0x7f0ad0005a90, drawable = 56623106)


/home/anholt/GpuTest_Linux_x64_0.7.0/GpuTest
[dump_trace_images] Running: eglretrace --headless --snapshot=510 --snapshot-prefix=./results/trace/gl-vmware-llvmpipe/gputest/triangle.trace- ./replayer-db/gputest/triangle.trace
Wrote ./results/trace/gl-vmware-llvmpipe/gputest/triangle.trace-0000000510.png

OK
[check_image]
    actual: c8848dec77ee0c55292417f54c0a1a49
  expected: c8848dec77ee0c55292417f54c0a1a49
[check_image] Images match for:
  gputest/triangle.trace

[check_image] Downloading file glxgears/glxgears-2.trace took 5s.
[dump_trace_images] Info: Dumping trace ./replayer-db/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace...
[dump_trace_images] Running: apitrace dump --calls=frame ./replayer-db/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace
// process.name = "/usr/bin/glxgears"
1384 glXSwapBuffers(dpy = 0x56060e921f80, drawable = 31457282)

1413 glXSwapBuffers(dpy = 0x56060e921f80, drawable = 31457282)


/usr/bin/glxgears
error: drawable failed to resize: expected 1515x843, got 300x300
[dump_trace_images] Running: eglretrace --headless --snapshot=1413 --snapshot-prefix=./results/trace/gl-vmware-llvmpipe/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace- ./replayer-db/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace
Wrote ./results/trace/gl-vmware-llvmpipe/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace-0000001413.png

OK
[check_image]
    actual: f8eba0fec6e3e0af9cb09844bc73bdc8
  expected: f8eba0fec6e3e0af9cb09844bc73bdc8
[check_image] Images match for:
  glxgears/glxgears-2.trace

replayer features also the query subcommand, which is just a helper to read the YAML files with the tests configuration.

Testing the other kind of supported 3D traces doesn’t change much from what’s shown here. Just make sure to have the needed tools installed: RenderDoc, GFXReconstruct, the VK_LAYER_LUNARG_screenshot layer, Wine and DXVK. A good reference for building, installing and configuring these tools are Mesa’s GL and VK test containers building scripts.

replayer also accepts several configurations to tweak how to behave and where to find the actual tracing tools needed for replaying the different types of traces. Make sure to check the replay section in piglit’s configuration example file.

replayer‘s README.md file is also a good read for further information.

piglit

replayer is a test runner in a similar fashion to shader_runner or glslparsertest. We are now missing how does it integrate so we can do piglit runs which will produce piglit formatted results.

This is done through the replay test profile.

This profile needs a couple configuration values. Easiest is just to set the PIGLIT_REPLAY_DESCRIPTION_FILE and PIGLIT_REPLAY_DEVICE_NAME env variables. They are self explanatory, but make sure to check the documentation for this and other configuration options for this profile.

The following example features a similar run to the one done above invoking directly replayer but with piglit integration, providing formatted results:

$ PIGLIT_REPLAY_DESCRIPTION_FILE=testing-traces.yml PIGLIT_REPLAY_DEVICE_NAME=gl-vmware-llvmpipe piglit run replay -n replay-example replay-results
[2/2] pass: 2   
Thank you for running Piglit!
Results have been written to replay-results

We can create some summary based on the results:

# piglit summary console replay-results/
trace/gl-vmware-llvmpipe/glxgears/glxgears-2.trace: pass
trace/gl-vmware-llvmpipe/gputest/triangle.trace: pass
summary:
       name: replay-example
       ----  --------------
       pass:              2
       fail:              0
      crash:              0
       skip:              0
    timeout:              0
       warn:              0
 incomplete:              0
 dmesg-warn:              0
 dmesg-fail:              0
    changes:              0
      fixes:              0
regressions:              0
      total:              2
       time:       00:00:00

Creating an HTML summary may be also interesting, specially when finding failures!

Wishlist

  • Through different backends, replayer supports running apitrace, RenderDoc and GFXReconstruct traces. We may want to support other tracing tools in the future. The dummy backend used for functional testing is a good starting point when writing a new backend.
  • The solution chosen for checking whether we detect a rendering regression is dependent on having consistent results, as said before. It’d be great if we could add a secondary testing method whenever the expected rendered image is variable. From the top of my head, using exclusion masks could be a quick single-run solution when we know which specific areas in a rendered scenario are the ones fluctuating. For more complex variations, a multi-run based solution seems to be the best option. EzBench has a great statistical approach for this!
  • The current syntax of the YAML test list files implies running the compare subcommand with the default behavior of checking against the last frame of the tested trace. This means figuring out which call number is the one of the last frame first. It would be great to support providing the call numbers directly in the YAML files to be able to test more than just the last frame and, additionally, cut down the time taken to run the test.
  • The HTML generated summary allows us to see the reference and generated image during a test run side to side when it fails. It’d be great to have also some easy way of checking its differences. Using Rembrandt.js could be a possible solution.

Thanks a lot to the whole Mesa community for helping with the creation of this tool. Alexandros Frantzis, Rohan Garg and Tomeu Vizoso did a lot of the initial development for the in-tree tracie tool while Dylan Baker was very patient while reviewing my patches for the piglit integration.

Finally, thanks to Igalia for allowing me to work in this.


Appendix

In 3D computer graphics we say “traces”, for short, to name the files generated by 3D APIs capturing tools which store not only the calls to the specific 3D API but also the internal state of the 3D program during the capturing process: shaders, textures, buffers, etc.

Being able to “record” the execution of a 3D program is very useful. Usually, it will allow us to replay the execution without the need of the original program from which we generated the trace, it will also allow in-depth analysis for debugging and performance optimization, it’s a very good solution for sharing with other developers, and, in some cases, will allow us to check how the replay will happen with different GPUs.

In this post, however, I focus in a specific usage: rendering regression testing.

When doing a regression test what we would do is compare a specific metric obtained by replaying the trace with a specific version of the GFX software stack against the same metric obtained from a different version of the GFX stack. If the value of the metric changes we have found a regression (or an improvement!).

To make things simpler, we would like to check changes happening just in one of the many elements of the software stack. The most relevant component is the user space driver. In particular, I care about the Mesa drivers and the GNU/Linux stack.

Mainly, there are two kinds of regression testing we can do with a trace: performance or rendering regression testing. When doing a performance one, the checked metric(s) usually are in terms of speed or memory usage. In the case of the rendering ones what we would do is comparing the rendered output at one (or many) point during the trace replay. This output, a bitmap image, is the metric that we will compare in between two different points of the Mesa driver. If the images differ, we may have found a regression; artifacts, improper colors, etc, or an enhancement, if the reference image is the one featuring any of these problems.

Installing LineageOS in the Sony Xperia XZ2 Compact Dual (in GNU/Linux) 5/5: Appendixes

WARNING

I have no responsibility whatsoever if this guideline causes any harm to your device. The intention of these posts are solely as personal notes for myself. Follow them at your own risk.

WARNING

Through these steps I will unlock the phone’s bootloader, erasing all data. This includes the DRM keys stored in the Trim Area (TA) partition. I’ll attempt backing them up but, as of today, there is no way of restoring them to the previous state nor knowing if the actual backup is usable at all.

Without these DRM keys, several audio and video proprietary functionality provided by Sony won’t be available including some camera post-processing features, color gamut profiles, white balance, noise reduction, X-Reality Video Enhancement, DSEE HX, ClearAudio+, and Widevine L1 support for HD Netflix.

Appendixes

Previously, we downgraded Sony’s Stock firmware, backed up the Trim Area, installed LineageOS, and, finally, bring back Sony’s stock camera app.

The installation had some bumps, so here a list of the things I could comment about …

Installing TWRP

I wanted to install the TWRP recovery tool just because I have experience with it and like it better. I did and used it successfully in the first installation of the LineageOS that I did. However, the LineageOS installation also installed the Lineage Recovery so I lost TWRP and, funnily enough, the steps I followed to install TWRP won’t work any more. Hence, I’m stack with the Lineage Recovery and that’s why I explain how to directly install Lineage Recovery in the previous post.

For the curious, these are the steps I followed.

First, we need to download the Unofficial TWRP recovery and extract it in a folder. After this I rebooted the device in fastboot mode via software. This is important. Don’t do it using the hard keys.

Once in fastboot mode:

root$ fastboot --disable-verity --disable-verification flash vbmeta vbmeta.img
[...]
root$ fastboot boot twrp-apollo.img

This will boot temporarily into TWRP. Now, we need to do the actual flash of TWRP. First, we need to copy the image:

root$ adb push twrp-apollo.img /tmp

And, from TWRP: Advanced menu -> Install recovery ramdisk -> Choose /tmp/twrp-apollo.img. After finishing installing TWRP, we can reboot into Recovery using the newly installed TWRP.

From there, you can also wipe the system and data and install LineageOS, Open GApps and Magisk. Interestingly, TWRP provides the possibility of pushing these files and installing without using adb sideload. This is interesting because it will make also easier to install a customized Open GApps package using the gapps-config file.

Notice that, more often than not, when booting into TWRP recovery the touchscreen wouldn’t work. This is a random behavior and rebooting again into Recovery may fix it in the next try.

Installing the Android System Webview from the Open GApps

As mentioned, I wanted to customize Open GApps to install the Android System Webview.

I did.

However, choosing this will only install a Google WebView Stub. What this means is that you won’t really have a WebView and, hence, when booting in the system, anything which makes use of a WebView will just crash (including registering into Google for using Google Play).

In other words, you need to install the real package but you won’t have an easy way of doing that. You will have to manually download the real APK from some 3rd party site and install it, for example, with adb install.

In the end I just reinstalled without it after reading that the WebView used by LineageOS is based in Chromium. So far so good.

Migration from my older phone

In order to move all my data from my Xiaomi Redmi 2 running LineageOS 14.1 I used the OAndBackupX application. It needs root rights but, fortunately, I had them in both systems and devices.

Some comments:

  • Make sure of using the exact same version of OAndBackupX in both devices.
  • The app suggests to use encryption when creating the backups. I didn’t use it since it was doing things more complicated.
  • I only did back ups of the user applications. First I also did back ups of the special cases (user accounts, for example) and after restoring, that caused me a headache with NextCloud and DavX⁵. Of course, jumping from 14.1 to 17.1 could cause these kind of troubles.

I initially used a SD Card to move the back ups. I wouldn’t recommend it now. If you have limited memory just create the back ups in steps and move them in batches using adb. With both devices plugged with USB cables and in developer mode:

root$ adb devices
List of devices attached
origin device
destination device

root$ adb -s origin root
restarting adbd as root
root$ adb -s destination root
restarting adbd as root
root$ # Create some backups in the origin device
root$ adb -s origin pull /storage/emulated/0/OABX .
[...]
root$ adb -s destination push OABX/* /storage/emulated/0/OABX/
[...]
root$ # Restore the backups in the destination device
root$ adb -s origin shell
origin:/ $ rm -rf /storage/emulated/0/OABX/*
origin:/ $ exit
root$ adb -s destination shell
destination:/ $ rm -rf /storage/emulated/0/OABX/*
destination:/ $ exit
root$ # Create some more backups in the origin device and repeat the process

Of course, no need to delete the back ups if you don’t need to.

Installing LineageOS in the Sony Xperia XZ2 Compact Dual (in GNU/Linux) 4/5: Bringing back Sony’s stock camera app

WARNING

I have no responsibility whatsoever if this guideline causes any harm to your device. The intention of these posts are solely as personal notes for myself. Follow them at your own risk.

WARNING

Through these steps I will unlock the phone’s bootloader, erasing all data. This includes the DRM keys stored in the Trim Area (TA) partition. I’ll attempt backing them up but, as of today, there is no way of restoring them to the previous state nor knowing if the actual backup is usable at all.

Without these DRM keys, several audio and video proprietary functionality provided by Sony won’t be available including some camera post-processing features, color gamut profiles, white balance, noise reduction, X-Reality Video Enhancement, DSEE HX, ClearAudio+, and Widevine L1 support for HD Netflix.

Bringing back the stock camera

In the previous posts we have downgraded the stock firmware from Sony, backed up the Trim Area (TA) partition and installed LineageOS.

Thanks to the great people from the xda-developers forum we have the chance to add Sony’s stock camera app. We will adb sideload it the same way we installed Magisk in the previous post, for example

First, the zip is called SemcCamera (SemcCamera-xz2c-52.1.A.2.1.zip at the moment of writing this) and it is, currently, the only add-on available for the Official LineageOS 17.1 image for the xz2c phone.

We download the file, reboot into Recovery Mode and plug the phone to the computer with the USB cable. Select Apply Update -> Apply from ADB:

root$ adb sideload SemcCamera-xz2c-52.1.A.2.1.zip
Total xfer: 1.00x

Now, Go back -> Reboot system now.

Currently, the stock camera won’t work out of the box. It needs to disable SELinux or set as Permissive. Luckly, since we have Magisk installed and we can grant root privileges, we can install SELinuxModeChanger and do so.

That’s it, now you should be able to use Sony’s stock camera!

Extra treat: add Sony’s Bokeh app

Sony also provides a nice application for taking fancy photos: Bokeh (Background defocus).

Unfortunately, we cannot install it just from Google’s Play Store since it claims that the app is not compatible with this phone.

However, we can force the installation, for example, using the Aurora Store.

Finally, if you want to know about some bumps I got during the road, continue to the Appendixes.

Installing LineageOS in the Sony Xperia XZ2 Compact Dual (in GNU/Linux) 3/5: Installing LineageOS

WARNING

I have no responsibility whatsoever if this guideline causes any harm to your device. The intention of these posts are solely as personal notes for myself. Follow them at your own risk.

WARNING

Through these steps I will unlock the phone’s bootloader, erasing all data. This includes the DRM keys stored in the Trim Area (TA) partition. I’ll attempt backing them up but, as of today, there is no way of restoring them to the previous state nor knowing if the actual backup is usable at all.

Without these DRM keys, several audio and video proprietary functionality provided by Sony won’t be available including some camera post-processing features, color gamut profiles, white balance, noise reduction, X-Reality Video Enhancement, DSEE HX, ClearAudio+, and Widevine L1 support for HD Netflix.

Upgrading to latest stock firmware

In the previous posts we have downgraded the stock firmware from Sony and backed up the Trim Area (TA) partition.

Since the guideline to install LineageOS mandates that we have the latest stock firmware from Sony running in the phone, I upgraded now from the downgraded exploitable version.

Using the built-in updater doesn’t seem to work any more (?!) so I had to flash the latest stock firmware in a similar fashion as I did for downgrading.

I already downloaded the firmware and it is already properly extracted so, in this case, I won’t need to use flashtool, only newflasher.

These would be steps to follow once I connected the phone to the USB cable in flashable mode:

root$ rm "H8324_Customized NOBA_1313-6167_52.1.A.3.49_R4C"/*ta
root$ rm "H8324_Customized NOBA_1313-6167_52.1.A.3.49_R4C"/boot/*ta
root$ cp -a newflasher.x64 "H8324_Customized NOBA_1313-6167_52.1.A.3.49_R4C"
root$ cd "H8324_Customized NOBA_1313-6167_52.1.A.3.49_R4C"
root$ chmod +x newflasher.x64
root$ ./newflasher.x64

[...]

Reboot mode at the end of flashing:
typa 'a' for reboot to android, type 'f' for reboot to fastboot, type 's' for reboot to same mode, type 'p' for poweroff, and press ENTER.
a

[...]

Optional step! Type 'y' and press ENTER if you want dump trim area, or type 'n' and press ENTER to skip.
Do in mind this doesn't dump drm key since sake authentifiction is need for that! But it is recommend to have dump in case hard brick!
n

[...]

Recommended step to skip this! Type 'y' and press ENTER if you want flash persist partition, or type 'n' and press ENTER to skip.
More info https://forum.xda-developers.com/xperia-xz1-compact/help/android-attest-key-lost-bootloader-t3829945
n

[...]

Device is put now out of flash mode.
Sent command: Sync
Waiting sync to finish…
……………… done
Sent command: continue.
Done.
Closing device.

Notice the questions and the answers. After a while, the phone will complete its reboot and we will be able to verify that the running firmware is the one flashed.

As explained in the previous posts, enable once again developer mode and USB debugging in the phone. For the next steps, enable also OEM unlocking in the developer options.

Installing LineageOS

We’ll follow the official guide.

First, we’ll unlock the bootloader. This will finally wipe out the TA partition losing the DRM keys. This is a point of no return.

I checked that my phone’s bootloader can be unlocked. I opened the phone application and dialed *#*#7378423#*#*. The service menu is now open. Go to Service info -> Configuration and checked that the Rooting status: states Bootloader unlock allowed: Yes. Also, noted down the IMEI.

Now, I connected the device to my PC with the USB cable and continued to set it in flashable mode:

root$ adb reboot bootloader
root$ fastboot devices
[...] fastboot
root$ fastboot oem unlock 0x<insert your unlock code>
…
OKAY [ 16.947s]
finished. total time: 16.947s

Unplug and start the phone. As explained in the previous posts, enable once again developer mode and USB debugging in the phone.

At this point, I decided not to keep following the LineageOS guideline since it explains how to use the Lineage Recovery. Instead, I used the TWRP recovery tool just because I have experience with it and like it better. However, I don’t recommend it as I’ve explained in the Appendixes.

Therefore, I explain here the same steps than the official guide. Download the latest Lineage Recovery and LineageOS installation package and connect the device to your PC with the USB cable and continued to set it in flashable mode:

root$ adb reboot bootloader
root$ fastboot devices
[...] fastboot
root$ fastboot flash boot <lineage_recovery>.img

Power off the device and now turn it on into Recovery mode by pressing Volume Down + Power.

Now, being booted into the Recovery mode, I downloaded a pre-install copy-partitions-20200903_1329.zip tool and selected Apply Update -> Apply from ADB.

root$ adb sideload copy-partitions-20200903_1329.zip

Once finished, reboot again into Recovery mode: Go back -> Advanced -> Reboot to recovery. Once back, Factory reset -> Format data/factory reset. Once finished, let’s install LineageOS: Go back -> Apply Update -> Apply from ADB.

root$ adb sideload lineage-17.1-<date>-xz2c-signed.zip

Now, before booting into the system, we want to add some more stuff: Open GApps and Magisk.

Magisk is a suite for customizing Android. Most importantly, it provides root access to the device, which I wanted to have in order to create backups of the installed applications and restore them, among other things.

Open GApps will provided us the core functionality provided by Google for Android. Most importantly, it will provide us Google Play. It is critical to install this before booting for the first time into the system. Otherwise, we would have to repeat the Factory reset step and wipe out all our personal data before attempting to install it.

Open GApps provides different size packages. The recommended for LineageOS are the pico or nano, but nothing bigger. Since I’m a troublemaker, I also wanted to customize the package to include the Android System Webview and remove even further packages from the pico and nano packages.

Hence, I downloaded the stock package for the ARM64 platform and the 10.0 Android version.

For reasons that I explain in the Appendixes, I finally didn’t install the Android System Webview but did remove some packages any way. The way of customizing a package is through a gapps-config file. However, to use this method the installation cannot be done through adb sideload and, unfortunately, the Lineage Recovery only offers this way of installing packages into the system.

Luckily enough, the Open GApps package is no more than a zip file so I could embed my options directly into the installer. So, after installing the LineageOS system, I rebooted again into Recovery mode: Go back -> Advanced -> Reboot to recovery and, back in Recovery, let’s install Open GApps: Apply Update -> Apply from ADB.

root$ mkdir my_gapps
root$ cd my_gapps
root$ unzip ../open_gapps-arm64-10.0-stock-<date>.zip
root$ cat installer.sh # Added the following lines in bold

[...]

echo "Include" > "$TMP/my_config.txt"
echo "" >> "$TMP/my_config.txt"
echo "CalSync" >> "$TMP/my_config.txt"
echo "DialerFramework" >> "$TMP/my_config.txt"
echo "GoogleTTS" >> "$TMP/my_config.txt"
echo "PackageInstallerGoogle" >> "$TMP/my_config.txt"
echo "BatteryUsage" >> "$TMP/my_config.txt"
echo "Speech" >> "$TMP/my_config.txt"
echo "#GooglePay" >> "$TMP/my_config.txt"
echo "Translate" >> "$TMP/my_config.txt"

# Locate gapps-config (if used)
for i in "$TMP/aroma/.gapps-config"\
"$TMP/my_config.txt"\
"$zip_folder/.gapps-config"\

[...]

root$ zip -0 -r ../my_gapps *
root$ cd ..
root$ adb sideload my_gapps.zip

And, now, let’s install Magisk: Apply from ADB.

root$ adb sideload Magisk-v20.4.zip

Once finished we can finally Go back -> Reboot system now.

Congratulations, your Sony Xperia XZ2 Compact Dual is now running LineageOS 17.1!!!

I have to say that, so far, I’m quite happy with the phone. It is a huge improvement for me, coming from a Xiaomi Redmi 2.

However, the camera has lost some enhanced functionality so let’s continue to bring back Sony’s stock camera app.

Installing LineageOS in the Sony Xperia XZ2 Compact Dual (in GNU/Linux) 2/5: Backing up the Trim Area (TA) partition

WARNING

I have no responsibility whatsoever if this guideline causes any harm to your device. The intention of these posts are solely as personal notes for myself. Follow them at your own risk.

WARNING

Through these steps I will unlock the phone’s bootloader, erasing all data. This includes the DRM keys stored in the Trim Area (TA) partition. I’ll attempt backing them up but, as of today, there is no way of restoring them to the previous state nor knowing if the actual backup is usable at all.

Without these DRM keys, several audio and video proprietary functionality provided by Sony won’t be available including some camera post-processing features, color gamut profiles, white balance, noise reduction, X-Reality Video Enhancement, DSEE HX, ClearAudio+, and Widevine L1 support for HD Netflix.

Backup the TA partition

As explained in the previous post, enable developer mode in the phone.

Following this guide, download the latest Magisk release. At the time of writing this it’s v20.4.

Download the tama-mroot.zip with the needed exploit.

Push both archives into the phone (you may need to give consent in a pop up dialog in the phone):

root$ adb push tama-mroot/tama-mroot.zip Magisk/Magisk-v20.4.zip /data/local/tmp
tama-mroot/tama-mroot.zip: 1 file pushed. 0.5 MB/s (21355 bytes in 0.039s)
Magisk/Magisk-v20.4.zip: 1 file pushed. 32.0 MB/s (5942417 bytes in 0.177s)
2 files pushed. 25.4 MB/s (5963772 bytes in 0.224s)

Get into the phone and follow the steps to get a root shell:

root$ adb shell
H8324:/ $ cd /data/local/tmp
H8324:/data/local/tmp $ unzip tama-mroot.zip
Archive: tama-mroot.zip
inflating: magisk-start.sh
inflating: magisk-setup.sh
inflating: tama-mroot
H8324:/data/local/tmp $ chmod 755 tama-mroot magisk-setup.sh magisk-start.sh
H8324:/data/local/tmp $ ./magisk-setup.sh

[...]

H8324:/data/local/tmp $ cd /data/local/tmp
H8324:/data/local/tmp $ ./tama-mroot

[...]

root_by_cve-2020-0041:/data/local/tmp # ./magisk-start.sh -1

[...]

root_by_cve-2020-0041:/data/local/tmp # ./magisk-start.sh -2

[...]

root_by_cve-2020-0041:/data/local/tmp # ./magisk-start.sh -3

[...]

We can verify now that we have really root privileges:

root_by_cve-2020-0041:/data/local/tmp # id
uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root),1004(input),1007(log),1011(adb),1015(sdcard_rw),1028(sdcard_r),3001(net_bt_admin),3002(net_bt),3003(inet),3006(net_bw_stats),3009(readproc),3011(uhid) context=u:r:magisk:s0
root_by_cve-2020-0041:/data/local/tmp # uname -a
Linux localhost 4.9.186-perf+ #1 SMP PREEMPT Fri Jan 17 01:22:05 2020 aarch64

Hence, let’s go ahead and back up the TA partition:

root_by_cve-2020-0041:/data/local/tmp # dd if=/dev/block/bootdevice/by-name/TA of=TA-locked.img
4096+0 records in
4096+0 records out
2097152 bytes (2.0 M) copied, 0.039839 s, 50 M/s
root_by_cve-2020-0041:/data/local/tmp # chown shell:shell TA-locked.img
root_by_cve-2020-0041:/data/local/tmp # sync
root_by_cve-2020-0041:/data/local/tmp # sync

Now, from another terminal in the computer, pull the created backup:

root$ adb pull /data/local/tmp/TA-locked.img

That’s it, we have finished backing up the TA partition!

Now, we can continue to install the LineageOS system.

Installing LineageOS in the Sony Xperia XZ2 Compact Dual (in GNU/Linux) 1/5: Downgrading Sony’s Stock Firmware

WARNING

I have no responsibility whatsoever if this guideline causes any harm to your device. The intention of these posts are solely as personal notes for myself. Follow them at your own risk.

WARNING

Through these steps I will unlock the phone’s bootloader, erasing all data. This includes the DRM keys stored in the Trim Area (TA) partition. I’ll attempt backing them up but, as of today, there is no way of restoring them to the previous state nor knowing if the actual backup is usable at all.

Without these DRM keys, several audio and video proprietary functionality provided by Sony won’t be available including some camera post-processing features, color gamut profiles, white balance, noise reduction, X-Reality Video Enhancement, DSEE HX, ClearAudio+, and Widevine L1 support for HD Netflix.

Why

I want to have a phone running Free Software with the possibility of using all the major apps out there. That means, unfortunately, some kind of Android flavor. I also want a small phone and, since I’m a Spaniard living in Finland, I’d like that my phone has dual SIM capability. Until now I was using a Xiaomi Redmi 2 but, after years of usage, I cannot squeeze it any more. I’d also love to have a decent camera, if possible.

After quite some research, my conclusion is that the only real alternative that ticks (most of) the boxes is the Sony Xperia XZ2 Compact Dual.

Preconditions

I’ll be doing all the stems in a Debian Buster GNU/Linux distribution on a x86_64 platform.

Downgrading the stock firmware

If you have read the warning above, you now know that installing LineageOS implies unlocking the bootloader. In turn, this means wiping the TA partition and losing the DRM keys, which will cause several advanced audio and video features to get lost forever.

We want to keep the hope that, at least, we would be able to restore this functionality. This means that we want to backup the TA partition. Doing that without actually unlocking the bootloader is not really possible … unless you exploit a security bug.

The Sony firmwares build 52.1.A.0.618 contains one such kernel bug. Therefore, first thing, downgrading the current firmware in the device to use the one affected.

As a previous step, I downloaded the firmware that was running in my device at the time: 8324_Customized NOBA_1313-6167_52.1.A.3.49_R4C

For downloading the up to date firmware I used the XperiFirm program:

root$ apt install mono-complete
root$ cert-sync /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt
root$ certmgr -ssl -m https://software.sonymobile.com
(Entered Y twice when asked)
$ mono XperiFirm.exe

Then, I selected the Xperia XZ2 Compact Apollo: H8324 dual phone and downloaded the Nordic Combined available firmware.

Now, I downloaded and extracted the exploitable H8324-52.1.A.0.618 firmware for the Xperia XZ2 Compact Dual and followed this guide to install it into the phone without unlocking the bootloader.

We want to use the Flashtool to create a bundle with the parts of the firmware we are going to use.

I downloaded the latest version of the tool (0.9.29.0 at the time) and tried to launch it:

root$ DISPLAY=:0.0 ./FlashTool
Running as root.
Error: dl failure on line 603
Error: failed /home/tanty/personal/sony_xperia_xz2c/flashtool/FlashTool/x10flasher_native/jre/lib/server/libjvm.so, because /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libm.so.6: version `GLIBC_2.29' not found (required by /home/tant
y/personal/sony_xperia_xz2c/flashtool/FlashTool/x10flasher_native/jre/lib/server/libjvm.so)

Bad news … it seems this version was compiled against a different C toolchain? Let’s use an older version then. 0.9.27.0 it is.

root$ DISPLAY=:0.0 ./FlashTool
Running as root.
Used java home : /usr
03/057/2020 16:57:14 - INFO - <- This level is successfully initialized
(Flashtool:8027): GLib-CRITICAL **: 16:57:14.971: g_base64_encode_step: assertion 'in != NULL' failed
(Flashtool:8027): GLib-CRITICAL **: 16:57:14.971: g_base64_encode_step: assertion 'in != NULL' failed
...

Voilá!

In the UI, we select Tools -> Bundles -> FILESET Decrypt. In the popping up Window we browse to the folder containing the exploitable firmware: H8324_Customized FR_1313-2469_52.1.A.0.618_R2C. There, we choose the 3 zip files that it contains and move it from the left side to the right side in the window and click Convert.

Once it has finished, we want to skip creating the bundle by just pressing Cancel in the next window. We have finished using flastool.

In the exploitable firmware directory we now have a new folder called decrypted. We want to delete some files there:

root$ rm decrypted/*ta
root$ rm decrypted/boot/*ta

Before we proceed to flash, we need to add some rules to the udev system in our computer so it can identify the Xperia phone:

root$ echo 'SUBSYSTEM=="usb", ACTION=="add", ATTRS{idVendor}=="0fce", ATTRS{idProduct}=="*", MODE="0777"' > /etc/udev/rules.d/51-sony.rules
root$ service udev restart

Now, we want to use another tool to flash these files into the phone: newflasher. I downloaded the latest v36 version, extracted, placed the executable in the decrypted folder from the previous step:

root$ mv newflasher.x64 decrypted
root$ cd decrypted
root$ chmod +x newflasher.x64

Last thing is setting the phone into flashmode.

First, let’s enable developer mode in the phone: Settings -> About phone, and hit several times the Build number field until it states that you have become a developer. Then, go to Settings -> System -> Advanced -> Developer options and switch on the USB debugging option.

Now, power down the phone. Once off, press and hold Volume Down and connect the USB cable that is connected to the computer in the other end. The led of the phone turns on and stays on. It is now into flashmode. Let’s flash:

root$ ./newflasher.x64

[...]

Reboot mode at the end of flashing:
typa 'a' for reboot to android, type 'f' for reboot to fastboot, type 's' for reboot to same mode, type 'p' for poweroff, and press ENTER.
a

[...]

Optional step! Type 'y' and press ENTER if you want dump trim area, or type 'n' and press ENTER to skip.
Do in mind this doesn't dump drm key since sake authentifiction is need for that! But it is recommend to have dump in case hard brick!
n

[...]

Recommended step to skip this! Type 'y' and press ENTER if you want flash persist partition, or type 'n' and press ENTER to skip.
More info https://forum.xda-developers.com/xperia-xz1-compact/help/android-attest-key-lost-bootloader-t3829945
n

[...]

Device is put now out of flash mode.
Sent command: Sync
Waiting sync to finish…
……………… done
Sent command: continue.
Done.
Closing device.

Notice the questions and the answers. After a while, the phone will complete its reboot and we will be able to verify that the running firmware is the one flashed.

That all by now, next step: backing up the TA partition!

Review of Igalia’s Graphics activities (2018)

This is the first report about Igalia’s activities around Computer Graphics, specifically 3D graphics and, in particular, the Mesa3D Graphics Library (Mesa), focusing on the year 2018.

GL_ARB_gl_spirv and GL_ARB_spirv_extensions

GL_ARB_gl_spirv is an OpenGL extension whose purpose is to enable an OpenGL program to consume SPIR-V shaders. In the case of GL_ARB_spirv_extensions, it provides a mechanism by which an OpenGL implementation would be able to announce which particular SPIR-V extensions it supports, which is a nice complement to GL_ARB_gl_spirv.

As both extensions, GL_ARB_gl_spirv and GL_ARB_spirv_extensions, are core functionality in OpenGL 4.6, the drivers need to provide them in order to be compliant with that version.

Although Igalia picked up the already started implementation of these extensions in Mesa back in 2017, 2018 is a year in which we put a big deal of work to provide the needed push to have all the remaining bits in place. Much of this effort provides general support to all the drivers under the Mesa umbrella but, in particular, Igalia implemented the backend code for Intel‘s i965 driver (gen7+). Assuming that the review process for the remaining patches goes without important bumps, it is expected that the whole implementation will land in Mesa during the beginning of 2019.

Throughout the year, Alejandro Piñeiro gave status updates of the ongoing work through his talks at FOSDEM and XDC 2018. This is a video of the latter:

ETC2/EAC

The ETC and EAC formats are lossy compressed texture formats used mostly in embedded devices. OpenGL implementations of the versions 4.3 and upwards, and OpenGL/ES implementations of the versions 3.0 and upwards must support them in order to be conformant with the standard.

Most modern GPUs are able to work directly with the ETC2/EAC formats. Implementations for older GPUs that don’t have that support but want to be conformant with the latest versions of the specs need to provide that functionality through the software parts of the driver.

During 2018, Igalia implemented the missing bits to support GL_OES_copy_image in Intel’s i965 for gen7+, while gen8+ was already complying through its HW support. As we were writing this entry, the work has finally landed.

VK_KHR_16bit_storage

Igalia finished the work to provide support for the Vulkan extension VK_KHR_16bit_storage into Intel’s Anvil driver.

This extension allows the use of 16-bit types (half floats, 16-bit ints, and 16-bit uints) in push constant blocks, and buffers (shader storage buffer objects).  This feature can help to reduce the memory bandwith for Uniform and Storage Buffer data accessed from the shaders and / or optimize Push Constant space, of which there are only a few bytes available, making it a precious shader resource.

shaderInt16

Igalia added Vulkan’s optional feature shaderInt16 to Intel’s Anvil driver. This new functionality provides the means to operate with 16-bit integers inside a shader which, ideally, would lead to better performance when you don’t need a full 32-bit range. However, not all HW platforms may have native support, still needing to run in 32-bit and, hence, not benefiting from this feature. Such is the case for operations associated with integer division in the case of Intel platforms.

shaderInt16 complements the functionality provided by the VK_KHR_16bit_storage extension.

SPV_KHR_8bit_storage and VK_KHR_8bit_storage

SPV_KHR_8bit_storage is a SPIR-V extension that complements the VK_KHR_8bit_storage Vulkan extension to allow the use of 8-bit types in uniform and storage buffers, and push constant blocks. Similarly to the the VK_KHR_16bit_storage extension, this feature can help to reduce the needed memory bandwith.

Igalia implemented its support into Intel’s Anvil driver.

VK_KHR_shader_float16_int8

Igalia implemented the support for VK_KHR_shader_float16_int8 into Intel’s Anvil driver. This is an extension that enables Vulkan to consume SPIR-V shaders that use Float16 and Int8 types in arithmetic operations. It extends the functionality included with VK_KHR_16bit_storage and VK_KHR_8bit_storage.

In theory, applications that do not need the range and precision of regular 32-bit floating point and integers, can use these new types to improve performance. Additionally, its implementation is mostly API agnostic, so most of the work we did should also help to have a proper mediump implementation for GLSL ES shaders in the future.

The review process for the implementation is still ongoing and is on its way to land in Mesa.

VK_KHR_shader_float_controls

VK_KHR_shader_float_controls is a Vulkan extension which allows applications to query and override the implementation’s default floating point behavior for rounding modes, denormals, signed zero and infinity.

Igalia has coded its support into Intel’s Anvil driver and it is currently under review before being merged into Mesa.

VkRunner

VkRunner is a Vulkan shader tester based on shader_runner in Piglit. Its goal is to make it feasible to test scripts as similar as possible to Piglit’s shader_test format.

Igalia initially created VkRunner as a tool to get more test coverage during the implementation of GL_ARB_gl_spirv. Soon, it was clear that it was useful way beyond the implementation of this specific extension but as a generic way of testing SPIR-V shaders.

Since then, VkRunner has been enabled as an external dependency to run new tests added to the Piglit and VK-GL-CTS suites.

Neil Roberts introduced VkRunner at XDC 2018. This is his talk:

freedreno

During 2018, Igalia has also started contributing to the freedreno Mesa driver for Qualcomm GPUs. Among the work done, we have tackled multiple bugs identified through the usual testing suites used in the graphic drivers development: Piglit and VK-GL-CTS.

Khronos Conformance

The Khronos conformance program is intended to ensure that products that implement Khronos standards (such as OpenGL or Vulkan drivers) do what they are supposed to do and they do it consistently across implementations from the same or different vendors.

This is achieved by producing an extensive test suite, the Conformance Test Suite (VK-GL-CTS or CTS for short), which aims to verify that the semantics of the standard are properly implemented by as many vendors as possible.

In 2018, Igalia has continued its work ensuring that the Intel Mesa drivers for both Vulkan and OpenGL are conformant. This work included reviewing and testing patches submitted for inclusion in VK-GL-CTS and continuously checking that the drivers passed the tests. When failures were encountered we provided patches to correct the problem either in the tests or in the drivers, depending on the outcome of our analysis or, even, brought a discussion forward when the source of the problem was incomplete, ambiguous or incorrect spec language.

The most important result out of this significant dedication has been successfully passing conformance applications.

OpenGL 4.6

Igalia helped making Intel’s i965 driver conformant with OpenGL 4.6 since day zero. This was a significant achievement since, besides Intel Mesa, only nVIDIA managed to do this too.

Igalia specifically contributed to achieve the OpenGL 4.6 milestone providing the GL_ARB_gl_spirv implementation.

Vulkan 1.1

Igalia also helped to make Intel’s Anvil driver conformant with Vulkan 1.1 since day zero, too.

Igalia specifically contributed to achieve the Vulkan 1.1 milestone providing the VK_KHR_16bit_storage implementation.

Mesa Releases

Igalia continued the work that was already carrying on in Mesa’s Release Team throughout 2018. This effort involved a continuous dedication to track the general status of Mesa against the usual test suites and benchmarks but also to react quickly upon detected regressions, specially coordinating with the Mesa developers and the distribution packagers.

The work was obviously visible by releasing multiple bugfix releases as well as doing the branching and creating a feature release.

CI

Continuous Integration is a must in any serious SW project. In the case of API implementations it is even critical since there are many important variables that need to be controlled to avoid regressions and track the progress when including new features: agnostic tests that can be used by different implementations, different OS platforms, CPU architectures and, of course, different GPU architectures and generations.

Igalia has kept a sustained effort to keep Mesa (and Piglit) CI integrations in good health with an eye on the reported regressions to act immediately upon them. This has been a key tool for our work around Mesa releases and the experience allowed us to push the initial proposal for a new CI integration when the FreeDesktop projects decided to start its migration to GitLab.

This work, along with the one done with the Mesa releases, lead to a shared presentation, given by Juan Antonio Suárez during XDC 2018. This is the video of the talk:

XDC 2018

2018 was the year that saw A Coruña hosting the X.Org Developer’s Conference (XDC) and Igalia as Platinum Sponsor.

The conference was organized by GPUL (Galician Linux User and Developer Group) together with University of A Coruña, Igalia and, of course, the X.Org Foundation.

Since A Coruña is the town in which the company originated and where we have our headquarters, Igalia had a key role in the organization, which was greatly benefited by our vast experience running events. Moreover, several Igalians joined the conference crew and, as mentioned above, we delivered talks around GL_ARB_gl_spirv, VkRunner, and Mesa releases and CI testing.

The feedback from the attendees was very rewarding and we believe the conference was a great event. Here you can see the Closing Session speech given by Samuel Iglesias:

Other activities

Conferences

As usual, Igalia was present in many graphics related conferences during the year:

New Igalians in the team

Igalia’s graphics team kept growing. Two new developers joined us in 2018:

  • Hyunjun Ko is an experienced Igalian with a strong background in multimedia. Specifically, GStreamer and Intel’s VAAPI. He is now contributing his impressive expertise into our Graphics team.
  • Arcady Goldmints-Orlov is the latest addition to the team. His previous expertise as a graphics developer around the nVIDIA GPUs fits perfectly for the kind of work we are pushing currently in Igalia.

Conclusion

Thank you for reading this blog post and we look forward to more work on graphics in 2019!

Igalia

matrix-send me a notification!

When you are working in the console of an Un*x system you always have the possibility of using some kind of notification system to warn you when a task has completed. Quite typically, that would involve an email that could arrive to your box’ local inbox or, if you have a mail agent properly configure, to some other inbox in the Internet.

With the arriving of the Instant Messaging systems you could somehow move from the good old email notification to some other fancy service. That has been my prefered method for quite a while since I understand email as a “non-instant” messaging system. Basically, I do not want to get instant notifications when a mail arrives. Add to that the hassle of setting some kind of filter criteria to get the notifications only for specific mail rules and the not yet universally supported IMAP4 push method, instead of pulling for newly arrived mail …

Anyway, long story short, for some time now we are using [matrix] as our Instant Messaging service at Igalia so, why not getting notifications there when a task is completed?

Yes, you have guessed correctly, that’s possible and, actually, it’s very easy to set up, specially with the help of matrix-send.

First, you need an account that will send you the notification(s). Ideally, that would be a bot user, but it could be any account. Then, you have get an access token with such user so you can interact with the matrix server from the command line as if it would be any other ordinary matrix client. Finally, you need to create a chat room between that user and your own in order to keep the communication ongoing. All this is explained in matrix’ client-server API documentation but, to make things easier, it would go as follows:

$ curl -XPOST -d '{"user":"", "password":"", "type":"m.login.password"}' "https:///_matrix/client/r0/login"
{
    "access_token": "",
    "device_id": "",
    "home_server": "",
    "user_id": "@:"
}

This will give you the needed access-token.

Now, from your regular matrix client, invite the bot user to a conversation in a new room. Check in the configuration of the new room for its internal ID. It would be something like
!<internal-id>:<home-server>.

Then, accept such invitation from the command line:

$ curl -XPOST -d '{}' "https:///_matrix/client/r0/rooms/%21:/join?access_token="
{
    "room_id": "!:"
}

All that is left is to configure matrix-send and start using it. Mind you, I’ve done a small addition that it has not been merged yet so I would just clone from my fork.

The configuration file would look like this:

$ cat ~/.config/matrix-send/config.ini
[DEFAULT]
endpoint=https:///_matrix/
access_token=
channel_id=!:
msgtype=m.text

The interesting addition from my own is the msgtype field. By default, in matrix-send its value is m.notice which, depending on the configuration, quite typically won’t trigger a notification in your matrix client.

All that is left is to make matrix-send executable and test it:

$ chmod +x /matrix-send.py
$ /matrix-send.py "Hello World!"